Actualités

Catalysing Collective Action to Combat Corruption in Infrastructure: Accountable and effective non-judicial grievance mechanisms

Catalysing Collective Action to Combat Corruption in Infrastructure: Accountable and effective non-judicial grievance mechanisms

Décembre 2022
OCDE (48 pages).

Infrastructure is vital for supporting economic growth, enhancing prosperity and well-being. G7 nations and other partnerships have committed to quality and sustainable infrastructure investments based on high standards and shared values to mobilise public and private investment. Unfortunately, infrastructure remains highly exposed to corruption and other irregular practices and lacks sufficient accountability. New and innovative approaches to tackle corruption are needed to address these challenges. This policy paper focuses on collective action and multi-stakeholder non-judicial grievance mechanisms to support early detection, prevention, and reporting of corruption. It highlights three mechanisms, namely, the National Contact Point for Responsible Business Conduct, the High Level Reporting Mechanism, and the Integrity Pact, which are well-suited to addressing corruption risks across the infrastructure lifecycle. As countries increase infrastructure investment and look to attract private financing, there is an opportunity to harness multi-stakeholder solutions that address corruption, de-risk projects and ensure finance meets its intended purpose.
Rapport sur les tendances du financement des infrastructures en Afrique 2019-2020

Rapport sur les tendances du financement des infrastructures en Afrique 2019-2020

Décembre 2022
Le Consortium pour les Infrastructures en Afrique -ICA- (136 pages).

La pandémie de COVID-19 a eu un impact négatif sur les flux d’investissement dans les infrastructures. Dans le même temps, elle a mis en évidence la nécessité d’une action parallèle sur les infrastructures sociales.
La réduction des investissements en infrastructure causée par la pandémie a impacté négativement la réduction du déficit annuel de financement de l’infrastructure en Afrique (le déficit de financement est la différence entre le coût estimé des besoins annuels nécessaires pour arriver à un niveau de service de base pour les africains d’ici 2025 et le niveau des engagements de financement réalisés dans une année).
2019 a été historiquement l’année avec le plus bas déficit de financement. Le Rapport TFI 2019-2020 estime le déficit pour 2019 d’une fourchette entre 53 et 93 milliards USD. Ce déficit a augmenté durant 2020, l’année de la pandémie, à un niveau entre 59 et 96 milliards USD, dû essentiellement au besoin de focaliser les ressources aux activités relatives à la pandémie, ce qui a fait reculer l’objectif pour atteindre les besoins de base en infrastructure sur le continent.
La pandémie a également montré la nécessité d’améliorer les infrastructures et les services de santé et a mis l’accent sur les problèmes de résilience des infrastructures et des services d’éducation.
Sustainable Financing of Economic and Social Infrastructure in Latin America and the Caribbean: Trends, Key Agents, and Instruments

Sustainable Financing of Economic and Social Infrastructure in Latin America and the Caribbean: Trends, Key Agents, and Instruments

Décembre 2022
Banque Interaméricaine de Développement / Inter-American Development Bank (72 pages).

While the region displays enormous potential for public investment efficiency gains, in other words, getting more out of fewer resources it is critical to boost mechanisms that incentivize more active and sustainable investments from the private sector. The private sectors participation can contribute to improve the development, operation, and maintenance of assets and infrastructure service provision in times of crisis, as well as to preserve appropriate investment levels amid enormous fiscal difficulties. Private participation in infrastructure asset financing, construction, and operation in the region is decisive to promote quality infrastructure services, contributing to the regions economic growth, and to reducing inequality among its inhabitants by granting them access to more and better opportunities.
Understanding how economic and social infrastructure is funded and financed in the region and how to boost and diversify the presence of public and private investors with different profiles is crucial to generate and/or improve the conditions to attract more and better financing, and therefore covering unmet investment needs.
Emerging trends in infrastructure

Emerging trends in infrastructure

Décembre 2022
KPMG (25 pages).

2023 may represent an epoch unlike any other. Future generations may look back at 2023 with deep admiration or deep scorn. They may praise leaders for their foresight or damn them for their inaction. Leaders today have a choice.
The repercussions of these choices can resonate for future generations. The risk is that leaders allow the worst of our human nature to rule decisionmaking during this period of massive social, political, economic and environmental change; collaboration could falter, globalization could fail, and society could fracture. The opportunity is that leaders allow the best of human nature to win the day. Society could unite in the face of danger, adapt to change, and innovate in adversity.
The willingness to let go of the past may largely dictate how societies move into the future. They won’t make much progress if they are shackled to sunk investments and entrenched systems. They won’t innovate if they can’t open their minds to new ideas and approaches. They won’t adapt if they aren’t looking ahead. And they won’t unite unless they believe in a better future.
Thriving : Making Cities Green, Resilient, and Inclusive in a Changing Climate

Thriving : Making Cities Green, Resilient, and Inclusive in a Changing Climate

Novembre 2022
Banque Mondiale / World Bank (67 pages).

Globally, 70 percent of greenhouse gas emissions emanate from cities. At the same time, cities are being hit increasingly by climate change related shocks and stresses, ranging from more frequent extreme weather events to inflows of climate migrants. This report analyzes how these shocks and stresses are interacting with other urban stresses to determine the greenness, resilience, and inclusiveness of urban and national development. It provides policymakers with a compass for designing tailored policies that can help cities and countries take effective action to mitigate and adapt to climate change.
Infrastructure Monitor 2022 : Global trends in private investment in infrastructure

Infrastructure Monitor 2022 : Global trends in private investment in infrastructure

Octobre 2022
Global Infrastructure Hub (93 pages). 

After remaining resilient overall through the initial shock of the pandemic in 2020, private investment in infrastructure projects in primary markets recovered in 2021 to just 0.3% below its 2019 level. This recovery was largely the result of growth in the regions hardest hit during the pandemic – Oceania, Latin America, and Asia – which all saw investment bounce back following steep regional declines in 2020.
However, the longer-term story of private investment in infrastructure is one of stagnation. Private investment in infrastructure projects in primary markets has been stagnant for eight years running and the USD172 billion invested in infrastructure projects by private investors in 2021 remains far shy of what is needed to close the infrastructure investment gap. Investment trends also differ among high-, middle-, and low-income countries, and the level of investment in middle- and low-income countries continues to decline.
In 2021, private investment in infrastructure projects grew by 8.3% in high-income countries, while investment in middle- and low-income countries fell by 8.8%. The gap between private investment in infrastructure projects in high-income countries and that in middle- and low-income countries continues to widen; in 2021, 80% of private investment in infrastructure projects occurred in high-income countries and 20% in middle- and low-income countries.
While the declining trend in infrastructure investment in middle- and low income countries began before the pandemic, it was exacerbated during the crisis, and investment levels remain significantly lower than those seen in high-income countries.
The renewables sector continues to attract the most investment, garnering almost half of total private investment in infrastructure projects in 2021. Meanwhile, the global trend away from non-renewables continued. Non-renewables now represent only 11% of total private investment in energy projects.
Encouragingly, following a trend that emerged during the pandemic in 2020, private investors are showing growing interest in telecommunications and social infrastructure, sectors that have historically attracted very low levels of private investment.
Le retour à la croissance pour les majors européens

Le retour à la croissance pour les majors européens

Septembre 2022
Mazars (30 pages).

Après une année 2020 marquée par la crise sanitaire de la Covid-19, les acteurs du BTP, de l'énergie, de l'immobilier et des concessions ont renoué avec la croissance sur cette année 2021, avec un niveau d’activité d’avant crise retrouvé, voire dépassés pour le secteur des Energies. Le taux de marge 2021 n’a cependant pas retrouvé le niveau de 2019, alors que le secteur doit affronter en 2022 des challenges inédits (inflation, pénuries, ect.).
La reprise de l'activité pour le panel est observée pour la majorité des acteurs : 11 d'entre eux, dont les 4 français voient une reprise de leur activité en 2021, avec pour 6 majors, une croissance de plus de 10% signe d'une réelle reprise du secteur.
EU construction sector suffers multiple setbacks

EU construction sector suffers multiple setbacks

Septembre 2022
ING (11 pages).

We expect low growth in the EU construction sector this year and next. The EU Construction Confidence Indicator is still positive but optimism is waning.
In June 2022, the EU's construction output was 2.3% lower than in February before the Ukraine war began. The difference in output between countries is huge. The Austrian and German construction sectors have experienced the biggest declines of -6.3% and -4.5%, respectively. Labour and material shortages are severe in these countries. In addition, German consumers are currently more reluctant to make home improvements than consumers in many other EU countries (see below). Austria has a lower number of building permits in 2021 which is likely to weigh on production this year and next. The Netherlands showed the smallest deterioration (-0.1%), however, compared to a year ago, Dutch contractor volumes still increased by a staggering 5.3%. Growth was especially high in the Dutch residential and commercial building sector. For Dutch civil engineering, the levels of nitrogen emissions in The Netherlands are still an issue.
On the other end of the spectrum, Poland’s construction sector showed the highest year-on-year growth in June (6.7%).

 

Embracing technology and sustainability in freight transport - Août 2022

Embracing technology and sustainability in freight transport - Août 2022

Août 2022
Voices on Infrastructure, Mc Kinsey (41 pages).
 
Table of contents
- Introduction
- News from the Global Infrastructure Initiative
- Disrupting transport: An interview with Robert Falck of Einride
- Unlocking hydrogen’s power for long-haul freight transport
- DHL on sustainable, customer-centric delivery in the last mile
- Mapping the way: Decarbonizing roads
- Managing capital risk in the race to net zero
- Roundtable recaps
* Hong Kong 2022: Surviving the productivity and inflation crisis
* Tokyo 2022: Navigating the new normal and decarbonization challenge in Japan’s infrastructure industry
* Sydney 2022: Scaling EV infrastructure to meet net-zero targets.
Ukraine Rapid Damage and Needs Assessment - Août 2022

Ukraine Rapid Damage and Needs Assessment - Août 2022

Août 2022
Banque Mondiale (244 pages).
 
As of June 1, 2022, direct damage has reached over US$97 billion, with housing, transport, and commerce and industry being the most affected sectors. Damage is concentrated in the frontline oblasts (74 percent), particularly Donetska, Luhanska, Kharkivska, and Zaporizka, and in oblasts that were brought back under government control (22 percent) such as Kyivska and Chernihivska. Disruptions to economic flows and production, as well as additional expenses associated with the war, are collectively measured as losses and amount to some US$252 billion. Ukraine’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) shrank by 15.1 percent year over year in the first quarter of 2022, and poverty is expected to increase from 2 to 21 percent (based on the poverty line of US$5.5 per person per day).
Reconstruction and recovery needs, as of June 1, are estimated at about US$349 billion, which is more than 1.6 times the GDP of Ukraine in 2021. Integrated into these needs are critical steps toward becoming a modern, low-carbon, disaster- and climate-resilient, and inclusive country that is more closely aligned with European Union standards. While the financing envelope is overwhelming, experience from other countries shows that reconstruction spans many years and a phased approach to reconstruction is critical. The report also details some US$105 billion needed in the immediate and short term to address the most urgent needs, including social infrastructure (such as schools and hospitals, especially in areas brought back under government control), preparation for the upcoming winter through winterization and restoration of heating and energy to homes, urgent repairs, gas purchases, support to agriculture and social protection, and restoration of vital transport routes. These actions will lay the groundwork for a safe, prioritized, and efficient reconstruction and recovery. 
 
The 2021/22 Infrascope : Evaluating the environment for public-private partnerships in Latin America and the Caribbean - Juillet 2022

The 2021/22 Infrascope : Evaluating the environment for public-private partnerships in Latin America and the Caribbean - Juillet 2022

Juillet 2022
Economist Impact pour le compte de la Banque Interaméricaine de Développement : rapport (54 pages) + résumé pays (57 pages) + méthodologie (149 pages).
 
Brazil, Chile, Uruguay, Colombia, Peru, Panama and Costa Rica top the indicators in Infrascope 2021/2022, which evaluates the capacity of countries to mobilize private investment via public-private partnerships.
The Infrascope 2021-2022 study finds that Latin American and Caribbean countries have made major strides toward creating environments that favor the emergence of efficient and sustainable public-private partnerships (PPPs) for infrastructure.
Brazil and Chile especially stand out in this area, while Colombia, Peru, Panama and Costa Rica also show good performance.
In general, the region has already laid the regulatory and institutional foundations for developing PPPs, and countries should now focus on improving project preparation, funding, and risk management, the report says.
Infrascope 2021-2022 is the seventh edition in a series of studies conducted every two years by Economist Impact, the analysis arm of The Economist Group, and commissioned by the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB).
The new edition of the Infrascope was expanded to include all 26 borrowing member countries of the IDB and features a new indicator framework to reflect the latest developments in PPPs for infrastructure. These developments include social and environmental sustainability, fiscal control and budget planning, transparency and accountability, and new financial instruments.
The study found that creating environments to better enable the development and implementation of PPPs for infrastructure is crucial to enhancing the efficiency, sustainability, public-private balance and quality of this mechanism in the region.
The study also points out that to develop fiscally viable infrastructure PPPs that are of high financial quality, it is necessary to reduce uncertainty via transparent, consistent and efficient risk allocation, and by applying lessons learned through ongoing project-performance monitoring.
It also recommends that countries place more emphasis on sustainability and preparation for the future to ensure economic and social infrastructure will withstand the test of time and climate change.
Guidance on PPP Legal Frameworks - Juin 2022

Guidance on PPP Legal Frameworks - Juin 2022

Juillet 2022
Banque Mondiale (148 pages).
 
This Guidance is intended to aid government officials inform themselves about and establish suitable PPP legal frameworks and sets out key considerations and sample drafting in relation to a number of critical provisions in publicprivate partnership (PPP) legislation and supporting instruments. The Guidance explains the background to these essential legislative provisions, while providing benchmarking examples from markets with different legal traditions and maturities, to highlight the need to cater to a government's specific set of circumstances. Designed as a succinct and digestible practitioner’s guide, the Guidance is not intended to cover every possible aspect of a PPP legal framework.
Neither is it a recommendation to opt for PPP as the delivery model for projects, nor an analysis of PPP’s advantages and disadvantages.
While PPP may be implemented on a one-off basis without any specific supporting legal and institutional framework, most countries with successful PPP programs rely on a sound enabling framework. These typically regulate the development and management of PPPs from upstream to downstream, anchoring PPP processes in the respective country’s overall public investment management framework and providing for clear assignment of institutional roles and responsibilities, implementation of appropriate project origination and appraisal processes and strong risk management throughout the PPP lifecycle.
Numerous emerging and nascent PPP markets have therefore made and are making efforts to adopt their own PPP legislation, and in doing so are looking for good practice to follow. While several international organizations have developed guidelines for good governance in PPPs regarding different types of infrastructure projects, specific knowledge products on drafting PPP legislation have been less numerous. Important recent examples include the UNCITRAL Legislative Guide on Public-Private Partnerships (2019) and accompanying Model Legislative Provisions on Public-Private Partnerships (2019), as well as the Draft UNECE-EBRD People-first PPP/Concession Model Law (at the time of writing not yet formally adopted).
It is against this background that the World Bank developed the Guidance as a practical tool for government officials to complement the global body of knowledge as regards the understanding and drafting of PPP legal frameworks. In focusing on selected key legal provisions, the Guidance particularly aims to address considerations related to the fiscal, environmental and social sustainability of PPP projects as well as their resilience/adaptability to external shocks such as natural disasters, climate change extreme weather events and crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic.
With respect to the sample drafting contained in the Guidance, the authors would like to emphasize that it is neither intended to be exhaustive nor prescriptive, but is provided as illustrative and a starting point for jurisdiction-specific drafting. Specifically, it is not meant to be mandatory for use in World Bank financed operations which may involve the review or reform of legal enabling environments for PPP. Instead, the contents of this Guidance should be regarded as one of many inputs for governments to consider when thinking of establishing or amending an existing PPP legal framework. It should equally be noted that references to country examples throughout the document should not be interpreted as World Bank endorsement of the respective country’s PPP framework/program or as recommended best practice. Rather, these examples are given for benchmarking purposes and to illustrate the drafting considerations explained in each chapter of the Guidance.
The authors would finally like to stress that this publication is seen as an evolving process. The intention is to develop further iterations of the Guidance as market practice around the key themes covered in this document (and any new areas) evolves, conceivably in response to the omnipresent challenge of climate change and other future crises.